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Synchronous generators


Invented by Nikola Tesla in late 19th century, the synchronous machine's best usage is generating electric energy in power plants, including hydro. The prime mover (turbine) spins the rotor, thus creating, through it's own excitation winding, a rotating magnetic field. This rotating field sweeps the distributed 3-phase stator winding, thus inducing the 3-phase voltage available at generator stator terminals. The output voltage frequency is directly proportional with speed. If connected to the national grid, the speed is constant, irregardingly of the load.

Small scale hydro stations uses several synchronous generator types:

  • WRSY - wound salient pole or distributed rotor excitation winding, with brushes and slip-rings;
  • PMSY - permanent magnet brushless excitation;
  • SBSY - shunt brushless excitation, with or without built-in AVR (automatic voltage regulator).

Several constructive variants (1 or 3-phase, low or medium voltage, horizontal or vertical, open-drip proof, etc.) of synchronous generators are available.

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