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Kaplan turbines


Invented in 1913 by Viktor Kaplan, this type of axial-flow reaction turbine has a runner similar to a boat propeller that is submerged in water and drives a generator. Single-regulated Kaplan use stationary stator guide vanes and orientable rotor blades, while double-regulated Kaplan involves adjustable stator guide vanes and rotor blades, with maximized hydraulic efficiency over a larger flow range.

Constant speed non-regulated Kaplan turbines are used when both flow and head remain practically constant. However, variable speed controlled non-regulated Kaplan also maintains a good efficiency over the entire flow range, while the mechanical construction is much simpler (fixed stator guide vane and rotor blades).

Kaplan turbines are particularly well suited for installation in sites with large flow (up to several m3/sec.) and small head (2-25 m).

Depending on the site characteristics, several constructive variants (propeller, siphon, open flume, horizontal or vertical, etc.) of Kaplan turbines are available.


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